Baptism without Water
- The baptism of Moses (1 Cor. 10:1–2). Here, Israel was identified with Moses as God’s deliverer from Egypt.
- The baptism of the cross (Luke 12:50). Here Jesus, the Savior, was identified with sinners.
- The baptism of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 12:13). At the moment of salvation, the believer is identified with Christ and imputed with His righteousness. (Gen. 15:6; Psalm 32:1–2).
- The baptism of fire (Matt. 3:11–12). This refers to the judgment of all those who do not believe. They are the chaff burned “with unquenchable fire.”
Baptism with Water
- The baptism of John (Matt. 3:11a). This was a call to Israel to publicly confess that they were sinners (Mark 1:4–5), and also a means of identifying Jesus as the true Messiah (John 1:29–34).
- The baptism of Jesus by John (Matt. 3:13–17; John 1:29–34). Jesus is identified as the Savior of the world.
- The baptism of Christian believers (Matt. 28:18–20; Acts 16:33). Here, new believers confess their identification with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection.