The Apostle John also battled gnosticism half a century after Paul; it had worked its heresy into the church (1Jo 21:18-29). Paul battled it in his letters as well (Col 2:8; 2Ti 3:6; 2Ti 2:25-26). Col 2:9-10 Faith is the ONLY true 'philosophy' in that it believes Truth (Col 2:3). 1Co 1:30 Christ is wisdom (1Co 1:21); we should live by the gospel (Gal 6:16; Phi 3:16).
Paul never met the Colossians but wrote to them from a Roman prison around 62 AD to counter misconceptions of his day. It magnifies the character of Jesus Christ more than any other book in the New Testament, and counters misconceptions of our day as well. The key verse may well be Col 1:18 "...that in all things, He might have preeminence."